Bioethics Forum Essay
Well, There’s Always the Zoo
After almost a week of workup in the hospital, our young patient with morbid obesity was at a diagnostic crossroads. He had undergone several hospital admissions for recurrent bloodstream infections, with no doctor being able to diagnose the cause. Weighing over 600 lbs., he was above the weight limit of our hospital system’s scanner tables and those of all the other major medical centers that we called in our large city. In response to the question of what to do next, when advanced radiographic imaging was the best next step based on practice standards, our radiology department’s answer was simple, yet inhumane: “Well, there’s always the zoo.”
While this response may seem far-fetched, and something from a TV show parodying the state of the U.S. health care system, transferring patients with severe obesity to veterinarian facilities or local zoos is very much a part of medical care for this stigmatized population. Difficult to study and quantify—there is little evidence in the medical literature of the rate at which human patients are imaged with equipment designed for animals–transfer to nearby animal imaging facilities as a solution to weight-capacity limits for advanced imaging studies is a well-known occurrence in human health care. Finding tables with higher weight-bearing capacity is not the only challenge with diagnostic imaging for this subset of the population: adjustment to radiation dosage, patient transportation and transfer needs, staffing allocation, and image processing may all require unique modifications and facilities.
The United States has struggled with the public health crisis of obesity for some time. According to recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, nearly 1 in 11 adults have severe obesity, defined as a body mass index over 40. In U.S. emergency rooms, the prevalence of severe obesity among patients approaches 40%. The impact on U.S. public health is well-known, but the impact on health care delivery is less familiar. Another recent national study estimates that the aggregate cost of obesity among U.S. adults is $260 billion. The study quotes rising costs across almost every category of care, including inpatient, outpatient care, and prescription drugs. While these estimates may reflect direct and indirect costs associated with complications, primary disease management, and prevention, it is also likely that rates of hospitalization, re-admission, and transfers to facilities for higher levels of care also contribute significantly. A lengthy, costly diagnostic process, like our patient’s, could have been avoided if there had been appropriate diagnostic tools.
Unfortunately, delivering optimal care to patients with obesity is not a new challenge for U.S. health systems. A national telephone survey in 2008 of hospital radiology technicians found that among 262 institutions, only 28% had access to large capacity CT scanners and 10% for MRI’s. While many imaging device manufacturers have increased weight limits to accommodate bariatric patients in recent years, there are too few full-service facilities. Advanced imaging is the gold standard for diagnosing many common diseases, such as stroke, internal bleeding and infections, and pulmonary embolisms. When appropriate diagnostic studies are not available, patient care suffers. In a 2021 study, U.S. providers cited barriers to diagnostic testing as one of the key problems facing older adults with obesity. Clearly, the obesity epidemic is not going away soon, and health systems are ill-equipped to address it.
Health care systems should seek to deliver care that is person-centered and compassionate, providing quality care to people of all body shapes, sizes, and BMIs. Not only would this better align with the mission of health care systems to provide equitable care, it would also reduce expenditures incurred from repeated or prolonged hospital stays and unnecessary transfers. Medical device manufacturers would also stand to gain from the production of scanners that can accommodate patients with higher BMI’s; as obesity rates increase, the market for these scanners will surely follow.
As a population already facing significant stigma, encounters with the health care system like the experience of my 600-lb. patient should raise concern. Rather than accept substandard care options–such as transferring patients to animal facilities for life-saving imaging–we should seek solutions that offer optimal care for all patients. Dehumanizing people with severe obesity only exacerbates stigma and poses barriers to care. If we can design advanced imaging facilities for variable sizes of animals, why can’t we do the same for our own species?
Kathryn Huber, MD, MS, is a resident in internal medicine at the University of Colorado. @kath_huber